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Does Media Make a Difference?

Advertisers spend lots of money to influence youth. Protect your child by teaching him or her to be smart about how the media may encourage unhealthy attitudes and behaviors about drug use.
Children are exposed to media influences every day; designs on food packages, milk cartons or cereal boxes. On the way to school they see billboards advertising everything from French fries to political candidates. At school they might see backpacks and clothes with designer logos, or images from tobacco or alcohol brands. Friends discuss TV programs, movies, video games, or songs with controversial lyrics.

Research tells us that children are influenced both negatively and positively by media they are exposed to. Advertising is everywhere, and when you stop to think about it, you may find yourself realizing how vulnerable everybody is to the media’s reach. For example, the tobacco industry has done a powerful job of using media to influence people’s attitudes about smoking. Research provides strong evidence that simply viewing smoking in movies promotes a desire to start smoking among adolescents.

In some countries the media are used to educate people about the dangers of smoking.


For Parents and Carers

If you are a Kinship Carer, these skills and resources may be useful.

Don’t assume that you’ve ‘had the talk’: three-quarters of parents of 11-16 year olds thought they had had a conversation about drugs with their child, but less than half as many (36%) 11-17 year olds said they remembered such a conversation.
We have split the advice into age groups.
7-10 years 9-12 years 11-14 years 13-17 years Kinship Care

Good Reasons Not to Drink
. Stay away from scare tactics. Most young teens are aware that many people drink without problems, so it is important to discuss the consequences of alcohol without overstating the case. Some good reasons why teens should not drink:

You want your child to avoid alcohol. Clearly state your own expectations about your child’s drinking. Your values and attitudes count with your child, even though he or she may not always show it.
To maintain self-respect. Teens say the best way to persuade them to avoid alcohol is to appeal to their self-respect—let them know that they are too smart and have too much going for them to need the crutch of alcohol. Teens also are likely to pay attention to examples of how alcohol might lead to embarrassing situations or events—things that might damage their self-respect or alter important relationships.
Better exam results. Drinking once or twice a week has been associated with scores around 20 points lower at GCSE (equivalent to 3 grades, or the difference between an A and an D in one subject); and drinking on most days may mean 80 points lower scores (equivalent to 13 grades) (National Centre for Social Research 2010).

You have a family history of alcoholism. If one or more members of your family has suffered from alcoholism, your child may be somewhat more vulnerable to developing a drinking problem.
Alcohol affects young people differently to adults. Drinking while the brain is still maturing may lead to long-lasting intellectual effects and may even increase the likelihood of developing alcohol dependence later in life.

Mulla Sadra’s Work (al-Hikmat al-muta‘aliyah fi’l-asfar al-arba‘ah)

The discussions in this book start with the issues of being and quiddity and continue with the issues of motion, time, perception, substance, and accident. A part is devoted to proving the existence of God and His attributes, and it ends with a discussion of man’s soul and the subjects of death and resurrection. The novelty of this interesting and important book is its classification of its themes in the mould of 4 stages of gnostics’ spiritual and mystic journeys, with each stage considered as one journey. Therefore, this book begins with existents and continues with the Hereafter, God, and the mustered people, because a gnostic’s journey in the first stage is from his self and people towards God; in the second and third stages from God to God (from His Essence to His Attributes and Acts); and in the fourth stage from God to people. The original book is in 4 big volumes which have been published in nine small volumes several times.

In fact, this book is, a philosophical encyclopedia and a collection of important issues discussed in Islamic philosophy, enriched by the ideas of preceding philosophers, from Pythagoras to Mulla Sadra’s contemporaries, and containing related responses on the basis of new and strong arguments. All these features have made it the book of choice for teaching at higher levels of philosophical education in scientific and religious centers.
The composition of this book gradually started from about 1015 A.H (1605 A.D), and its completion took almost 25 years, till some time after 1040 A.H (1630 A.D).

Study of Mulla Sadra’s Life

He was not merely a philosopher, thinker, and founder of a philosophical school of thought, possessing the knowledge of the common sciences of his time, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and Islamic sciences such as interpretation and hadith. He was also a successful teacher of philosophy and a distinguished writer of several useful philosophical books. From another point of view, he was a gnostic and pious ascetic and worshipper who had some supernatural abilities, so that, as he himself implicitly claimed, he could make his spirit fly out of his body whenever he wished and go with it to observe the supernatural.
however, Mulla Sadra had two other scholarly characteristics rarely witnessed in other scientists. The first was related to the depth of his knowledge. He was never satisfied with what he knew, learned, taught, and wrote. Rather, he used to delve into philosophical problems as deeply as possible, and discover all there was to know. It was in the light of this characteristic that he managed to plant the seed of a great revolution in philosophy.

Like Suhrawardi (the Iranian Illuminationist philosopher of the 6th century) and Plotinus, Mulla Sadra believed that someone who cannot separate his soul from his body and perform extraordinary or supernatural acts is not a true sage and philosopher. Both of his teachers, Shaykh Baha al-Din and Mir Damad, possessed great spiritual powers. Mulla Sadra studied under these two prominent scholars and remained in their company for some time; nevertheless, he believed that his retreat (from the age of 30 to 35) in a village (Kahak) near Qum and his solitude, worship, bereavement, and the despair of people together helped to open a new window before his eyes towards the truth and the hidden world.

He has written about this issue in the Introduction to al-Asfar. His seclusion, which was accompanied by a kind of spiritual failure, aided him in becoming a strong man with a strong soul, so that, like Plato, he could perceive the realities of philosophy not only through reasoning, but also through intuition. Such ascetic practices turned the sensitive and frail young man into an enduring, perseverant, and patient master who could withstand the attacks of envious and superficial scholars of his time like a mountain, and follow his holy mission to the end of his life.
Mulla Sadra has no equal either in philosophy or in character and spirit among Western philosophers. Professor Henry Corbin believes that if we could put Jacob Boheme and Emanuel Swedenborg together, and add them to Thomas Aquinas, Mulla Sadra would be born.
However, the writer is of the view that this admiration is not enough to celebrate Mulla Sadra’s greatness. The history of his life and works indicates that he can only be equated with a figure like Pythagoras or, at least, Plato. A close study of his philosophy reveals that it has some roots in the thoughts of these two prominent philosophers, so that Henry Corbin and some others have called him a Neo-Pythagorean or Neo-Platonic philosopher.

Delgosha Garden in Fars province (in IRAN)

In southern entrance of Tang-e-Sadi in Shiraz, and beneath Nodar castle, there is a large garden, which is known as Delgosha. The garden is composed of a very large ground area located alongside the Boustan avenue which leads to the tomb of Sa`di. The walls of the garden is made of mud but the entrance portel is made of clay brick.
From the entrance of the garden to the building, which is located in the center of the garden, there is a water font and a cement street. Four streets have been constructed round the building leding to the walls of the garden.

On the sids of some of these streets there are cypress and pine trees. Orange, palm and walnut trees have been planted in other parts of the garden. There is a large pond right in front of the building.
This building has been erected on a platform and the lower part of the walls is covered with plain stone. The building inside the garden comes in three stories and the portal is decorated with glaze tiling. The doors of some of the rooms are quite old.

There is an octagonal structure on the first floor in the center of which is located a pond covered with blue tiles The ceiling of the building is a simple dome in the middle of which there is a vent. There are four royal rooms with four angels on the sides of the octagonal structure.

Sialk Hills in Esfahan province (in IRAN)

Approximately 4,500 years BC., a community with an interesting civilization was settled in this area and their tools were of stone and bone.
There is a possibility that the former residents of this region had succumbed to their successors. Here, Elamite slabs of clay have been found, and due to the links of this community with that of the civilization of Shoosh (Susa), about 5,500 years ago, they learned to write.

Thereby, several clay slabs with the most ancient Elamite script are vestiges of this area. Evidences found in the cemetery between the two hillocks are related to the fresh immigrants to the Sialk Hill, which bears a strong resemblance to the discoveries in the Giyan Hillock of Nahavand and Khordin of Savoj Bollaq.

Masouleh in Gilan province (in IRAN)

Although regions to the south of the Caspian Sea are mainly covered with mountainous and traditionally virgin villages and settlements, but one cannot help mentioning Masuleh, 56 km. southwest of Rasht and 1050 meters above sea level, which is actually the most breathtakingly beautiful village here.

Approached from Rasht via Fuman by a dramatic pass and completely surrounded by forest, this perfectly preserved village appears to have grown out of its surrounding like a limpet clinging to a rock.

It`s formed of several irregular levels of terraced, pale cream houses with gray state roofs, interspersed with evergreen trees.
So steep is the slope that the familiar Iranian network of narrow alleys is entirely absent, and instead the flat roof of each level of houses forms a pathway for the level above.

The village has few facilities to offer the visitors, but it’s in spring setting makes it a perfect antidote to travel in the dry and dusty central plateau, and well worth a day trip from Rasht.
It`s bitterly cold in winter, with snow sometimes three meters deep, but the climate in summer is extremely pleasant and bracing.

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